Galatée de Larminat
Université Paris-I Panthéon-Sorbonne
Gramsci: Reflections on Hegemony in Crisis
Abstract: This article seeks to explore Antonio Gramsci’s analysis of history, developed in the 20th century between both World Wars, a period of critical importance and change, much like the one we are ourselves living through. This article chooses to interrogate the notion of modernity through that of crisis, the apparent highlight of modernity’s failures. Hegemony, a central concept in the historical philosophy developed by Gramsci, is indissociable from the notion of crisis. This article argues that Gramsci’s work holds both theoretical and practical interest for today’s politics since the philosophy of praxis promoted by the author is at once conscious activity and active conception, and therefore merits a rereading. The nature of the crisis itself seems to be related to several concepts such as processuality, organicity and morbidity. It is through the analysis of the many forms the notion of crisis takes – organic crisis, integral State crisis, revolutionary crisis, crisis of capitalism, epochal crisis – that this article aims to inscribe reflections on crisis in realistic historicism, to go beyond abstract language and to reinforce the importance of real socio-historical events.
Keywords: Crisis; Marxism; Gramsci; Modernity; Hegemony.